The proliferation of over-the-top (OTT) and video-on-demand (VOD) material has led to an increase in the demand for watermarking solutions, which are designed to prevent the content from being illegally used or distributed. As a consequence of this, there is a demand for methods that can recognise certain user accounts or streaming sessions in order to implement watermark detection, which is important for locating leakers and taking the appropriate actions against them. The demand cannot be satisfied by using standard watermarking techniques.

The session-based video watermarking technique comes into play at this point in the equation. The “analogue hole” is a problem that has become more prevalent as a result of the availability of HD monitors and cameras; session-based watermarking is considered to be a potential solution to this issue.

Producing two distinct iterations of the same piece of content is required in order to generate a session-based watermark (called A and B variants). The files are broken up into smaller portions via adaptive bitrate distribution, and the playouts adhere to a predetermined pattern of As and Bs. During the reveal process, the session identity is determined by taking into account the one-of-a-kind A/B sequence. Each chunk that is used comes either from Track A or Track B, and when they have been utilised, they are then split into session-based manifests along with descriptions of the various chunks and combinations that can be used. When done in this manner, each session can have its own manifest that is based on the binary representation of the information.

Using a content delivery network (CDN) to cache only two copies of the material eliminates the need for any client-side third-party integrations. This is due to the fact that the server-side manifests already have all of the information that is required. Because of this, it is no longer necessary to produce or keep as many versions of the content as there are users on a content-sharing platform because there is no longer a requirement to do so. Even if the user attempts to re-digitize, re-compress, or trim the item, session-based watermarks are hard to remove or tamper with in a system that has been effectively designed and implemented. This is true even if the user converts the asset to analogue format.

Producers and streaming services are able to protect themselves against a wide variety of dangers, including collusion and the manipulation of playlists, by utilising session-based watermarking. DRM protected content on a number of devices can have an additional layer of protection added to it by using server-side watermarking, which eliminates the requirement for device integration as a prerequisite.


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